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托福听力推理题技巧

猿辅导资讯 adm1n 2020-05-22 22:53:44 查看评论 加入收藏

托福听力推理题技巧。托福听力推理题主要考察考生根据听力材料的相关细节进行简单推理的能力。在这个过程中,考生首先需要听懂、记忆和理解材料中的重要信息,然后进行推理。下面小编为大家带来托福听力推理题答题技巧,希望对大家有所帮助。

英语学习

托福听力推理题解题技巧

1. 在做题的时候注意不要过渡推断,步骤最少的推断最接近答案。举个简单的例子:某人生病了,我们不能说他去世了,只能说他身体不适或健康不佳。

2. 在推断的时候必须基于原文,尤其是涉及自然科学的知识,在某一学科某一领域的某一概念还未被全世界的科学家普遍接受的时候,我们不能运用课外之时做出推断。

尊重谈话人的态度和意见是做题的关键。涉及到人文科学的知识,中外分歧更大,我们更要抛弃自己的主观意见,站在谈话人特定的历史角色和观点上,做出符合逻辑的推论。

3. 注意答案选项中是不是又被问对象的近似概念或同义词,有些推断答案就是同一概念的替换或延伸。例:

(一)Narrator: Listen again to part of the discussion. Then answer the question.

Professor: Scott Anfinson is an incredible archaeologist and author whose work conducive to the discovery of the indigenous Indian tombs is thought to be a great asset to Minnesota archaeology.

What can be inferred about Scott Anfinson

A: His work is not worthy of any credit.

B: He is an archaeologist with a lot of assets.

C: He has done a lot of noteworthy jobs on Minnesota archaeology.

D: He, as a great archaeologist, donated some assets to protect the local environment.

分析:1.首先是正确辨别两个词: incredible (出色的, 惊人的) 和 asset (财富)。

2. 通过分析A, 可以了解到是对incredible 的理解。在这里头脑一定要清晰,因为 incredible 中的in不表示 否定,与incomplete(不完整的)中的in 不是一回事。特别注意该词的构词法,在考试中经常会出现类似的混淆构词方法的错误选项;

3. 再来分析B 和D,通过分析不难得出主要考察对asset的理解。美国人经常把某人当作asset, 即 人是世界上最大最宝贵的财富的人生哲学的体现。

4. 综上分析,不难得出C 为正确选项。 noteworthy 意为 值得关注的,正好切合教授话中对Scott Anfinson 的嘉许。

托福听力推理题答题技巧 
优秀的外教英语培训机构 jxhang.com 网上学英语口语我比较看好这家。


1、推理题的考察形式:

与IBT阅读一样, 听力部分推理题的题干中常出现infer, imply , most likely (least likely) 或probably 等词语。根据OG, 在IBT 听力部分, 每次考试这类题目的数量为0-2道,所以只要注意一些细节和做好笔记,做对应该不是问题。

2、推理题的做题技巧:在听懂、记忆和理解原材料的基础之上进行同义替换。

我们来看一个例子:

W: Can I see your license and registrations please?

M: Whats the matter, officer? Did I do something wrong?

W: You were speeding.

M: I was speeding?

W: You certainly were. Do you have any idea how fast you were going?

M: I m not sure, but I was going about 35.

M: This Street is in a 25-mile-per-hour speed zone, you know.

M: It is?

Question: what can be inferred about the man?

A. He was on his way to work

B. He hadnt realized he was speeding

C. He lives on Elm Street

D. His speedometer isnt working

解题:听完整个对话,其中关键词语 license and registrations speeding how fast25-mile-per-hour speed zone 我们可以推断出这是一个交警和驾驶人员的谈话,故事应该发生在路上,从而可以得出故事的核心问题是驾驶员超速,所以问题问man的情况:通过对整个对话的分析,我们可以看出A ,C,D答案没有提及,可能是正确的, 而B是我们最为有把握的正确答案,因为通过对I m not sure, but I was going about 35. 和This Street is in a 25-mile-per-hour speed zone, you know. It is .这些句子进行同义替换之后,我们可以非常肯定B就是正确答案。

推理推断题解法

1补充出没有说完的话

有些话没有直接说出来,但凭借常识或固定搭配,我们即可顺利猜出下一句,而这一句话就是正确答案。若能顺利理解出这一层意思,答案呼之欲出。但实际考试中,考生的理解往往浮于表面,不能当场抓住这一层意思,等做题的时候,已经忽略了本来很简单的答案。

What does the professor imply about the spacecraft Clementine?

A. It sent back the first color photographs of the Moon

B. It was powered by solar energy

C. It landed in the far side of the Moon

D. It flew over the Moons polar regions

TPO5-3是一篇比较难的听力,SPA-basin,第2题是一道比较难的推断题。对应的听力文本包括下面一句话。

Um unlike earlier lunar missions, Clementine didnt orbit only around the moons equator.

翻译:和之前的探月计划不同的是,Clementine飞船不仅仅绕着月球的赤道飞行。

not onlybut also是固定表达方式,教授的讲座只提到前半部分,没有说出来的后半部分即推断内容。把没有说完的话补充出来,即:Clementine飞船还绕着其他地方飞行,只有D选项表示这个意思。

What does the professor imply when he says this?

A. The students can understand Frantzens art without knowing about her life

B. The students should pay very close attention to what he is going to say

C. Some of his students are already familiar with Frantzens life story

D. Some of his students may not appreciate Frantzens work

这是TPO1-2的一篇听力,第6题重听一段原文进行推断。

I find Frantzen to be a very accessible artist. I mean, some artists, to appreciate them, you have to know their life story, but Heres a little bit about Rose Frantzens life anyway.

翻译:我认为Frantzen是一个非常容易理解的艺术家。我是说,有些艺术家,为了鉴赏他们,你必须得知道他们的生平,但是不管怎么说,还是有一点Rose Frantzen的一点故事。

解析:但是部分没有说完,如果补充出来就是但是,鉴赏Frantzen的作品的话,你不需要知道他的生平故事,即正确答案A。

常见的固定搭配如下:

1: more than 不仅仅 (还有)

eg:TPO4-5 Moving rocks

2: not only/从家长们的点评中我们能够了解到不一样的信息,qicheyouqi8.com在这里我也要来说说我看中的是哪家机构了merely (but also) not just

eg: TPO5-3 SPA-basin

3: most (but somesome)

eg: TPO4-5 Moving rocks

4: some (but others/one) someand others/one

eg: TPO1-1 Rose Frantzens wrok

5: would/should/could have 本应该(其实没有)

eg: TPO8-6 The Periodical Table

2对比信息取反

对比的两个对象可以是不同的事物,也可能是同一事物的不同时期.如果A和B进行对比,A的反面就是B。通常来说,各个参数完全相反。这个原理,可以运用到托福推断题中。

What can be inferred from be fact that Lechuguilla Cave is no longer forming?

A. The cave has stopped attracting visitors

B. The cave no longer contains any limestone

C. The air in the cave is safer to breathe now than it was in the past

D. Gypsum deposits inside the cave are growing thicker

本题有一定的难度,我们来看看听力文本。

And Lechuguilla is pretty much dormant now. Its not really forming any more. But, there is other ones like it, for example, in Mexico, that are forming. And when cave researchers go to explore them, they see and smell, the sulfuric acid and gases of...er...phew...now, something else, think of rotten eggs. And, its not just the smell. Explorers even need to wear special masks to protect themselves from the gases in these caves.

翻译:龙舌兰洞现在已经几乎休眠了。它现在几乎不再形成。但是,有其他一些像龙舌兰洞一样的岩洞,比如说在墨西哥的一些,还正在形成。当岩洞研究者去探索这些岩洞时,他们会看见,闻到硫酸等气体额,噗,简直要人命,想想臭鸡蛋的味道。而且,不仅仅气味难闻,探索人员甚至需要戴特质面具,保护自己不受到这些岩洞中的气体的伤害。

解析:这段信息提到L-cave和与之类似的墨西哥cave。But转折说明两个岩洞进行对比,因此笔记应该分成上下两排:

L-cave: form ___

M-cave: form danger/harm

由于两个岩洞进行对比,故M-cave的反面即L-cave的情况,由此可以推出L-cave现在不那么危险。

3正推法

我们需要明白,逻辑推理的过程,通常是premise+ assumption conclusion。Premise是前提,assumption为假设,是通常没有说出来的premise,只有假设成立,结论才成立。

这个可以按照三段论推理来进行理解,即Major premise + minor premise conclusion,assumption就是minor premise。三段论推理是一种重要的演绎推理。

比如,所有的植物都是需要水分的(大前提),小麦是植物(小前提),所以,小麦也是需要水分的(结论)。

三段论作为一种思维方式,其包含的三个性质判断通常都是以大前提、小前提、结论这样的顺序排列。但用自然语言表达三段论时,语句顺序是灵活的,而且常常使用省略形式(有省略大前提或小前提或结论等形式)。

例如,口语中常说这是学校规定的呀,把它补充完整就是:凡是学校规定都是应该执行的(大前提),这句话是学校规定的(小前提),所以,这句话应该被执行(结论)。

1:Major premise: Tyrannical rulers deserve no loyalty;

Minor premise: King George III is a tyrannical ruler

Conclusion: Therefore, King George III deserves no loyalty.

2:Major premise: All men are mortal.

Minor premise: Socrates is a man.

Conclusion: Socrates is mortal.

3:Major premise: All mortals die.

Minor premise: All men are mortals.

Conclusion: All men die.

我们可以通过TPO3-3的第6道题来看看这种方法是使用。

What does the student imply when he say this:

A. He does not like Jean Painleves films

B. He thinks that the professor should spend more time discussing Jacques

Cousteaus film

C. He believes that high quality filmmakers are usually well known

D. He believes that Jean Painleves film have been unfairly overlooked

这道题的难度虽然不高,但是却运用到逻辑推理的一个经典推理方式。正确选项为C。对应的听力文本为:

Student:Well, maybe I shouldnt be asking this, but if Painlevs films are so special, so good, why havent we ever heard of them? I mean, everyones heard of Jacques Cousteau.

翻译:学生认为:也许我不该问,但是Painleve的电影这么出名,这么好,为什么我们从来没有听说过。我是说,大家都听说过Cousteau啊。

解析:学生的含义是:Painleve不如Cousteau好,因为前者出名,后者不出名。那么,这句话的逻辑推理过程如下:

∵ major premise:Painlevebjxfyy.com不出名,Cousteau出名

conclusion: Painleve不好Cousteau好

那么这个推论成立的条件就是:

minor premise:出名的人一定好。

故学生的assumption假设是:出名的filmmaker就比不出名的好,Painleve不如Cousteau好,因为他觉得大家都听说过后者,没有听说过前者。heard of为听说过,即知名度。

我们可以看看教授的回答,就会明白学生说这句话的前提是创作水平和知名度挂钩。

Professor: Well, thats a fair question. Uh, the short answer is that Painlevs style just never caught on with the general public. I mean, it probably goes back at least in part to what we mentioned earlier, that people didnt know what to make of his films they were confused by them, whereas Cousteaus documentaries were very straightforward, met peoples expectations more than Painlevs films did. But you are true: film history is about what we know about them. And Painlev is still highly respected in many circles.

翻译:教授:问得好。简答地说,Painlev的风格压根从来没有收到大众欢迎/关注。我是说,至少部分原因是因为当时的人们根本不知道如何理解他的电影,被这些电影弄得晕头转向。然而Cousteau的纪录片却非常直接,比Painlev的电影更能满足人们的心理期待。不过,你说的也对:电影史就是我们所知道的/电影史就是名利场。(话说回来,)Painlev的电影还是在很多领域备受推崇的,(只是同学你不知道而已)。

解析:教授的话既是对学生吐槽的肯定,又是否定。从名气来看,Painlev确实不如Cousteau,但这并不意味着Painlev没有Cousteau好,因为名气并不能代表着品质。学生的assumption不一定成立,但也有一定理由。我们还可以从教授的话中听出些许讽刺:学生作为一个电影史学生,当然不会从听说过像Painlev这样的电影大家。像教授这样的行家都对Painlev赞不绝口,学生不知道Painlev是学生的眼界问题。

托福听力中如何进行推理推断

一、 考察内容

推理推断题也是托福考试听力中常考的题型。与观点组织题不同,它不是用例子证明所提出的观点,而是通过所给的例子,推出一个结论。

二、 出现方式

推理推断题的题干,一般是这样的:

What does the professor imply when he explains the washing and scraping methods that were used to remove ink from a parchment surface?

What can be inferred about two stars if their spectra have similar spectral line patterns?

推理推断题的题干中一般包括imply 和 infer这样的词。所以,一看到imply 或是infer 就应该想到这是推理推断题。暗含着什么?或是由此可以推出什么?

三、 解题思路

这种托福听力题型的解题思路如我们所说,是根据所给例子推出一个结论,但是在推断的过程中,有一点请特别注意,就是不要过度推断。下面举例来说:

例一、TPO 15 L3

In the late MiddleAges, it was customary to scrape away the surface of the parchment with an abrasive, which completely wiped out any writing that was there. But earlier in the Middle Ages, the original ink was usually removed by washing the used parchment with milk. That removed the ink. But with the passing of time, the original writing might reappear.

What does the professor imply when he explains the washing and scraping methods that were used to remove ink from a parchment surface?

A. Washing made parchment more able to retain newly applied ink than scraping did.

B. Washing was less effective than scraping as a means of permanently erasing ink.

C. The scraping method was used in the creation of the Archimedes palimpsest.

D. Neither method completely erased the original text

答案 B

文章说呢,在中世纪晚期,使用的摩擦的方法可以把羊皮纸上的字迹完全擦掉。而早些时候使用牛奶除去字迹的方法不那么有效,虽然当时看不到了,但随着时间的流逝,被擦掉的字迹会重现。所以,对于想要除掉羊皮纸上得字迹,以便被重新使用这个目的而言,前者是更有效的。也就是我们B选项所说。从一个可以完全擦掉,一个过后会重现,推出一个比另一个更有效,这就是一个合理推断的过程。由文章所给的例子和其中所含的信息,推出结论,这就是推理推断题的实质所在。托福听力再次要强调的就是不要过度推断,一定要依据所给的例子和所含的信息来推断。

例二、TPO 3 L 4

What can be inferred about two stars if their spectra have similar spectral line patterns?

And if you were looking at the spectrum of some other star, the colors would be the same. But the spectral lines would break it up at different places, making different patterns. Each pattern stands for a distinct chemical element, and so different sets or patterns of spectral lines mean that the star has a different chemical composition.

What can be inferred about two stars if their spectra have similar spectral line patterns?

A. The stars are approximately the same distance from the Earth.

B. The stars probably have same chemical elements in common.

C. The stars have nearly the same brightness.

D. The stars are probably of the same size

答案 B

文章说一些恒星发出的光谱颜色一样,可是它们的光谱线不同,这就给确定恒星的化学成分奠定了依据。因为不同的光谱图形对应不同的化学成分。也就是说光谱图形和化学成分的一一对应性。所以,我们可以推断出,如果恒星的光谱图形一致,那么它们所含的化学成分也应该是一样的。故B对。

这就是推理推断题。题干多半含imply 或是 infer 这样的词。解题是根据例子合理推断,但切记不要过度推断。

托福听力题型有这么多种大家不要嫌麻烦,托福考试听力一定要把题目类型搞清楚再做,这样才更容易让托福听力有个好分数。


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